UKUHLELA KWAMAHHALA EMHLABENI WONKE

Guides

Index

1. Izici zeLaser Pointers
2. Ukwakhiwa kweLaser Poers
3. Imibala yeLaser Poers
4. Amandla weLaser Poers
5. Ukuhlukaniswa kweLaser Poers
6. Imithetho kanye nokulebulwa kwamaLaser Poers
7. Ungahumusha kanjani ilebuli ukuthi ingakhohliswa
8. Ukusetshenziswa kabi kweLaser Poers
9. Ukusetshenziswa Okuphephile Kwe-Laser Poers
10. Ukusetshenziswa okubalulekile kweLaser Poers
10.1. Isethulo
10.2. Isayensi yezinkanyezi
10.3. Ukuhlolwa
10.4. Izithombe Zasebusuku
10.5. I-Airsoft
10.6. Ukuzingela
10.7. Ukukhipha izinyembezi
10.8. Imikhosi nemibukiso

1. Izici zeLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

I-Laser Pointers iqoqo TorLaser

I-laser (Light Amplization by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, noma ukukhanya okunyuselwa ukukhipha imisebe okuvuselelekile), iyithuluzi elisebenzisa umphumela we-quantum mehendi (elenziwe noma elifuduswayo), lokwenza umugqa okhanyayo okhanyayo wezindlela ezifanele nosayizi , ukwakheka nobumsulwa kulawulwa. Ngempela, i-emitter ekhanyayo, kepha ekhethekile njengokukhanya okuguquguqukayo okuguquguqukayo, ukuze amadivaysi e-laser ezindaweni zayo eziningi, abe khona kakhulu ezimpilweni zethu zansuku zonke zeminyaka manje futhi ngokungaguquki ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo. Zingaba isikhombisi esilula ukukhomba ebalazweni, ukufunda iso nge-DVD, noma okubaluleke kakhulu kubuchwepheshe obusetshenziswa kwimibuthano eminingi yesayensi, kusuka kwezokwelapha kuya kubunjiniyela, i-aerospace, ukuzivikela, njll.

I-laser pointer iyithuluzi elincane elilingana nosayizi ofana nepeni (noma uhlobo lwenkinobho encane), lisebenzisa isibani esilingana nesilinganiso esikhipha ukukhanya kwe-laser, imvamisa luhlaza okotshani noma obomvu futhi okuvame ukusetshenziswa ukubonisa iphuzu elithile noma beka njengoba usuku lukhombisa iphoyinti lokukhanya kuphela lapho ushaya umphezulu opaque. Ukukhanya kwe-Laser kukhulu, ngakho-ke futhi izikhombisi. Yize zingamamilitha ambalwa wamandla, bayakwazi ukukhipha ugongolo olungamamitha ayisentimitha ububanzi. Eqinisweni, ubukhulu bawo bungalingana nobukhanya belanga. Noma yisiphi isibani esivamile sikhipha inani eliphakeme kakhulu lokukhanya kwe-laser okuncane kepha kusabalale kuzo zonke izinkomba.

Izinsimbi ze-Laser zincane futhi azihlakazeki njengoba kwenza isibani esikhanyayo. Leli khwalithi libizwa ukuqondiswa futhi elivumela ukusetshenziswa kwalo njengesikhombi sokwethulwa. Kuyaziwa ukuthi noma isibani esikhanyayo asifinyeleli kuhambo olunamandla kude: uma ugxila esibhakabhakeni, ugongolo lwalo lubonakala luphela. Ugongolo luqala ukusakazeka esikhathini esingagxiliwe, ukuze kufinyelelwe izinga lokuhlakazeka lize liphelelwe usizo. Kodwa-ke, bakwazile ukukhombisa imigqa ye-laser yamandla ambalwa enyangeni nokukhanya kwayo kwakusakhanya ngokwanele ukubona kuMhlaba. Omunye wemishayo ye-laser yokuqala eyadutshulwa yathunyelwa enyangeni ngo-1962 ifinyelela kumakhilomitha amane kuphela osakazeke ngaphezu kobuso bayo obungamakhilomitha ayizinkulungwane ezingamakhulu amathathu namashumi ayisishiyagalombili.

Beam Laser Pointer

Ama-Lasers akhiqiza ukukhanya kwe-monochromatic, okungukuthi, umbala owodwa. Ukukhanya okujwayelekile kuqukethe yonke imibala yokukhanya okubonakalayo (i-spectrum), ehlanganiswe ndawonye, ​​iba mhlophe. Imishayo ye-laser ikhiqizwe ngemibala yonke yomnyama (yize ejwayelekile kakhulu ibomvu futhi iluhlaza), futhi futhi ezinhlotsheni eziningi zokukhanya okungabonakali; kodwa i-laser ethile ingakhipha umbala owodwa kuphela. Ama-lasers athile angakhipha ama-monochromatic frequency eziningana ngasikhathi sinye, kepha hhayi isibuko esiqhubekayo esiqukethe yonke imibala yokukhanya ebonakalayo njengoba isibani sokukhanya singenza. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunama-lasers amaningi aqhakambisa ukukhanya okungabonakali, okufana ne-infrared ne-ultraviolet.
Ngokuqondene nokusetshenziswa okuvame kakhulu kwama-laser poers yilezi: ezimnandi, izinkanyezi, izithombe, izibonakaliso, izivivinyo, izethulo, izifundo, ukubukwa okubukwayo, ukubukwa kwezindlebe, izindlebe, ukukhwezwa kwezulu, ukuzingela, i-airsoft ...

2. Ukwakhiwa kweLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

I-pointer ebomvu ye-classic ithwala ekucwangcisweni kwayo okulula, i-laser diode ekhipha ukukhanya okubomvu okulinganiselwa ngamamitha kuma-nanometers, ingasukela ku-orange-red (635nm) iye kubomvu omnyama (690nm). Kusuka ku-700nm obomvu kumnyama kakhulu kangangokuba amehlo ethu awasabonwa futhi yilapho-ke lapho iba nobomvu. Lokho kungabonakali kithina kodwa kuyingozi enkulu yombani, ngoba asikwazi ukukubona. Ngaphambi kwale diode lens ilensi ligxile kahle ikhiqiza ugongolo oluncane lwe-laser light.

Ukwakhiwa kwezikhombisi ze-laser

I-green laser pointer isebenza ngendlela ehluke kakhulu: njengoba i-laser eluhlaza engakhuli ngokuphelele, kusetshenziswa indlela engaqondile ukufeza umbala owufunayo, obizwa nge-DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) noma i-diode pumped state solid.

Isipikili esiluhlaza siphethe i-laser diode ukukhanya okungabonakali kwe-infrared (ku-808nm) namandla aphezulu agxila kukristali odakayo oshintsha umbala we-laser. Umphumela wale nqubo yi-laser eluhlaza ku-532nm. Inkinga ukuthi akuyona yonke i-laser infrared ephenduka ibe luhlaza, kodwa kuphela i-20% kanti enye esele iguqulwa ibe ukushisa futhi ibuye ibe yingxenye yokukhanya kwe-infrared ishiya ingilazi iluhlaza, ngakho-ke i-infrared filter sets (IR).

Zisebenza kanjani Laser izikhomba GreenImininingwane engxenye yangaphakathi kwesikhombisi se-laser esiluhlaza esingama-200mW nesihlungi se-IR. Kubonakala njenge-laser infrared ekhishwa ngaphakathi, iba luhlaza ekuphumeni, idlule phakathi kwamakristalu anenwele. Isihlungi se-IR phezulu.

Isihlungi se-IR Laser PointerNgokusebenzisa i-lens ephakeme ye-IR, ungayibona ingulule encane eluhlaza okotshani bese yenza ukukhanya okuluhlaza kube ngu-532nm.

Ukuthola i-laser eluhlaza enamandla enamandla i-diode di-infrared laser iyadingeka njengoba ukusebenza kwengilazi kuncane, ngaphandle kokuluhlaza futhi insalela ye-infrared ayisithakaseli.

Kubi kakhulu ingilazi, kepha thina ekuphakameni kwe-infrared. Kungakho ibanga elifushane, izibani ze-laser eziluhlaza ezi-20mW zilingana ngoba ine-100mw infrared. Njengoba kukhona ilensi yokufiphaza ugongolo oluhlaza, ukukhanya kwe-infrared kushiya kuvulekile (okuxubekile) ngakho-ke kuyasha kuphela eduze kokuvulwa. Amandla wangempela atshelwa ngokuluhlaza (532nm).

Inkinga ngama-lasers esezingeni eliphansi, ayinakho ukuhlunga kwe-IR futhi ngenxa yalokho, ukukhanya okukhishwa kulezi zikhomba ezingenasisekelo ze-IR kwenza ukuxubana nokukhanya kwe-infrared.
Izinkinga ukukhanya okukhanyayo kuxutshwe imibala yangempela yile:

1. Amandla we-Lasers. Uma uthenga i-laser 200mW 532nm (eluhlaza okotshani) no-150mW kwalawo angama-200 ukukhanya okungamakhanda (808nm), khona-ke uzoba ukukhanya kwe-laser kuphela njenge-50mW 532nm emsulwa.

2. Ngoba i-IR ayibonakali, noma uluphi ugongolo olushayekile lungalimaza amehlo akho futhi awukwazi ukubona indlela yemigqa yokukhanya, okubenza babe yingozi enkulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho yize kusetshenziswa imithambo yamehlo, ama-goggle avikela kuphela ukukhanya kwe-laser ebonakalayo, kungaba yi-532nm uma iluhlaza, noma i-650nm ebomvu ngokwesibonelo, ukuze ukukhanya okungabonakali kwe-infrared kwenzeke ngaphandle kwenkinga ngokusebenzisa izibuko kungakulimaza umbono .

3. Imibala Laser Pointers - Buyela ku-Index

I 'nqunu' iyunithi yobude olilingana nesigidi sezigidi zamamitha.
Kuvame ukusetshenziselwa ukukala ubude bemisebe ye-ultraviolet, imisebe ye-infrared nokukhanya. Isimboli ngu-nm nm.

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ngokusobala ngenxa yokusebenza kwazo zihlala zikhipha uhla olubonakalayo ingxenye enkulu yogongolo lwayo, noma ngokuya ngekhwalithi ye-laser le ngxenye izoba ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi.
Umbala wogongolo lwe-laser unqunywa amandla okukhanya akhishwe yi-laser diode pointer.

Amamitha ajwayelekile a-wave laser

Wavelength izikhombisi ze-laser

• I-405nm: i-violet ibomvu eduze kokuncane okubonakala esweni lomuntu.
• I-445nm: Luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, kubonakala kakhulu ikakhulukazi ebangeni eliseduze.
• I-532nm: luhlaza okotshani, okugqamile kunabo bonke, kubonakala kakhulu futhi kunobukhali ngokubukwa
• I-650nm: Umbala obomvu, kunzima ukuwubona kunabanye.
• I-880nm: I-Colour Infrared (IR), engabonakali ngeso lomuntu.

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ezithengiswa ngemibala ehlukahlukene ehlukene: obomvu nohlaza, yizona ezivame kakhulu, kepha zitholakala futhi ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, o-violet noma ophuzi / o-orenji.

4. Amandla weLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

Amandla wokukhipha aqala kusuka ku-1 mW (milliwatt) kuya kuma-2 watts.

Kukhanya kosuku, iso lomuntu alikwazi ukubona ugongolo olukhanyayo oluphuma ku-laser pointer. Lowo ugongolo ngokuvamile luba ngamamilimitha ayi-1 ububanzi uma lubonakala kahle ebusuku futhi ngokunengqondo lunakeke kakhulu ukuphuma kwalo, lufinyelele ugongolo ukuba lube nebanga elingaphezu kwamakhilomitha ayi-10. Enye into ebalulekile okufanele uyiqaphele ukuthi iso lomuntu libheke kakhulu emazingeni aphansi ku-spectrum yendawo eluhlaza (enama-wavelength ka-520-570 nm). Ukuzwela kwehla ngama-wavelength asukela kokubomvu kuya kokuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ngakho-ke uma siqhathanisa izikhombisi ze-laser zamandla afanayo, ziyohlala zibonakala ziluhlaza kakhulu kunolunye ugongolo lwemibala emibili.


Ngakho-ke umbuzo wokuqala okufanele ubuze lapho sinquma umbala wesikhombisi kungani sizosebenzisa?

-Ngenxa ye-Presentations noma izingqungquthela, kuzoba ne-red laser pointer nokukhishwa okungu-50 kuye ku-100mW (milliwatts) noma okuluhlaza okuyi-20 kuye ku-50mW kuzoba okwedlula okwanele, ngaphandle kokuthi kungokonga kakhulu.

Uma udinga ukusebenzisa isethi phakathi kwezethulo noma izingqungquthela bese ukhomba izinkanyezi esibhakabhakeni noma izinto ezikude noma ezisetshenziselwa ukuthwebula izithombe zobusuku kulula kakhulu i-laser eluhlaza enamandla we-20 noma i-50mW (milliwatts).

-Ukusetshenziswa okuqondile ekusebenzeni kwezinkanyezi noma ukubona ebusuku noma kusiza ukugwedla, kufanele sikhethe i-laser eluhlaza enamandla amaningi, isibonelo i-100 noma i-200mW. Kusihlwa, kuya ngesimo sezulu, ugongolo lwaso luzoba nobude obungaphezu kwamakhilomitha ayi-5.

-Uma sifuna ukuzama ukushiswa kwezinto, okuluhlaza kungencane kakhulu kokwakhayo futhi kufanele sikhethe obomvu noma o-violet ongu-300 kuye ku-500mW noma munye u-1 2 noma XNUMX W wamandla.

Lokhu kuyinto ebalulekile ekuholeni, ngoba ngokuya ngombala okhethiwe, sizodinga amandla amaningi noma amancane, ngokuya ngokusetshenziswa esifuna ukukunika khona.

I-milliwatt, esifushanisiwe isiNgisi (mW), ingaphansi kwesakhiwo samandla we-International System of Units, aziwa ngeWatt noma iWat futhi oluphawu lwayo nguW.

Amandla wokukhishwa kwemishini kagesi ivezwa kuma-watts, noma ayinamandla kangako njengoba izikhombisi eziningi ze-laser, zisetshenzisile isikwati sazo esithi milliwatt silingana nenkulungwane le-watt.

Okusho ukuthi, i-laser pointer 200mW amandla afanayo ne-0.2W. Musa ukudida i-mW (milliwatts) nge-MW (megawatts).

I-pointer ebomvu engu-300-500mw pointer ilungele izinto ezivuthayo nogongolo, amamitha amamitha abonakalayo. Imvamisa bavumela ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwemizuzu embalwa ukuphuma ngemuva kwemizuzwana eyi-15.

Kodwa-ke, i-pointer engokoqobo engu-50mW iluqhakazile kune-pointer ebomvu engu-200mW, ugongolo lubomvu futhi luya ngaphezulu.I-200mW eluhlaza eluhlaza iqhathaniswa nobukhulu ne-1W eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ukuze kuqondiswe amandla wetheleskophu ka-200mW noma ngaphezulu kuyanconywa, kufinyelela ugongolo olunobude obungaphezu kuka-7 km.

Amaphoyinti aluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ajwayele amandla we-1W noma 2W, angashisa cishe zonke izinhlobo zezinto futhi agqibe afinyelela amabanga amakhilomitha ayi-5.

Amandla we-infrared ngaphansi kwe-500mW angashisa kalula kanye nezinto zepulasitiki ezimnyama; ngamandla e-1W noma i-2W bangashisa cishe noma yini futhi i-3W ingafinyelela umlilo ezintweni ezithile ezinjengekhadibhodi.

IViolet ingaphezulu kwe-100mW futhi ingashisa izinto uma igxila ngokuphelele ngokuhlelekile futhi isebangeni elifishane, okungukuthi ngo-5 kuye ku-20 cm. futhi uma sikhomba kokuthile singenza i-phosphorescent igqame kakhulu.

5. Ukuhlukaniswa kweLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

Imikhiqizo ye-Laser, icubungula amandla e-wave, okuqukethwe kwamandla kanye nezimpawu zokushaya kwenhliziyo kogongolo lwe-laser zihlukaniswa ngezigaba ezilandelayo:

-I-1Class XNUMX: Imikhiqizo ye-laser iphephile kuzo zonke izimo ezibonakalayo zokusebenzisa, lapho i-radier laser etholakalayo (ukufinyeleleka okufinyelelekayo) ugongolo lwamandla luhlala luphansi noma lilingana nenani lokuvuleleka elivumelekile. Ngakho-ke, kwe-Class 1 laser, amandla wokukhipha angaphansi kwezinga okukholelwa ukuthi ukulimala kwamehlo kwenzeka ngalo. Ukuchayeka kugongolo lwe-Class 1 laser ngeke kuholele ekulimaleni kwamehlo. I-Laser class 1 ingabhekwa njengephephile. Kodwa-ke, imikhiqizo ye-laser ye-Class 1 ingahle ibe nezinhlelo ze-laser zesigaba esiphakeme, kepha ibe nezindlela zokulawula ezanele zokuqinisekisa ukuthi ukufinyelela ku-boramu akunakwenzeka ngesikhathi sokusebenzisa okujwayelekile kohlelo. Izibonelo zemikhiqizo enjalo zifaka abaphrinta be-laser nabadlali be-compact disc (CD, DVD, Blu Ray, njll.)
I-Class 1M Laser class 1M iyimikhiqizo ekhiqiza ugongolo oluhluke kakhulu noma iphuzu ububanzi. Ngakho-ke, yingxenye encane kuphela yalo lonke ugongolo lwe-laser olungangena iso. Kodwa-ke, le mikhiqizo ye-laser ingaba yingozi emehlweni uma ugodo lubukwa ngokukhulisa okuphezulu. Amanye ama-lasers asetshenziselwa izinhlelo zokuxhumana Imikhiqizo ye-fiber laser yi-Class 1 M.

-Class 2: ingabe imikhiqizo ekhipha imisebe ye-laser ebonakalayo kuhla lwama-wavelength phakathi kuka-400 no-700nm (nanometers). Ukuvikelwa kwamehlo kuvame ukutholakala ngokuphoqa iso, kufaka phakathi i-blink Reflex (ukuvalwa kwemisewu okwenziwa ngemvelo), kodwa-ke, kufanele kuthathe izinyathelo zokuphepha ukuze kugwenywe ukuqondwa okuqondile kokuqhubekayo kogongolo. Ama-laser we-Class 2 akhawulelwe kumandla wokukhishwa aphezulu we-1mW noma inkulungwane ye-watt (isifinyezo se-mW). Umuntu othola ukuvezwa emehlweni oxhaka be-laser bekilasi 2, kungaba ngengozi noma ngenxa yesenzo esenziwe ngamabomu somunye umuntu (ukusetshenziswa kabi) uzovikeleka ekulimaleni ngempendulo yokuphambuka yemvelo uqobo. Kuyindlela yemvelo ebangela ukuba abantu abazimele bangavikeleli ukukhazimula nekhanda lakhe, ukuze kuboniswe amehlo kufushane emehlweni. Ukuchayeka okuphindaphindiwe noma ngamabomu kogongolo lwe-laser akunakuqiniseka. Ezinye izikhombisi ze-laser ne-barcode scanners ziyimikhiqizo ye-Class 2 laser.

-Class 2M: I-2M lasers ekilasini yimikhiqizo ekhiqiza ugongolo oluhluke kakhulu noma iphoyinti ububanzi obubanzi obungu-400 kuye ku-700nm wavelength. Ngakho-ke, yingxenye encane kuphela yoxhaxha lwe-laser yonke engangena esweni futhi inqunyelwe ku-1 mW, efana nomkhiqizo we-Class 2 laser Noma kunjalo, le mikhiqizo ingaba yingozi iso uma iphuzu libonakala likhulisa amathuluzi e-optical noma ele izinkathi zesikhathi eside. Amanye ama-lasers asetshenziselwa izinhlelo zokusebenza zomphakathi, njengamathuluzi nobunjiniyela benqanaba lokuqondisa akhiqiza ama-laser Class we-Class 2

-Class 3A: Imikhiqizo ye-Laser ephephile ukubukwa ngayo iso elinqunu. Amadivaysi eklasi eliphakeme lamandla 1 kanye neklasi 2 futhi anamandla wokukhishwa aphezulu we-5mW. .Ngokuba ukuphuma kwe-laser ebangeni lama-wavelength phakathi kwe-400nm ne-700nm, ukuvikela iso kutholakala ngezimpendulo ezingaguquki emehlweni akhe, kufaka phakathi i-blink Reflex. Ngamanye ama-wavelength, ubungozi esweni elinqunu akukho okudlula kwemikhiqizo ye-laser ye-Class 1 eqonda ngqo emikhiqizweni yemikhiqizo ye-Laser class 3A esebenzisa amathuluzi wokukhanya (isib. I-binoculars binoculars, izibonakude, ama-microscopes) kungaba yingozi. E-UK, isigaba se-3A sithathwa njenge-3R.

-Class 3: (ngezinombolo zaseRoma) kweleveli yaseMelika, ayinayo inqubo ye-Class 3A Class echaziwe ngaphambilini eBritish Standard. Ngakho-ke, i-laser pointer Class IIIA yaseMelika efanelekile kahle yayiba isisetshenziswa sekilasi le-3B uma ihlukaniswa ngokwe-IBritish Standard. Ukusetshenziswa kwezinombolo zaseRoma kumele kukhombise ukuthi umkhiqizo uhlukaniswe ngokwezinga laseMelika. Ngokwezifiso, izibonelo zenzeka lapho ilebula le-3A elingafanele lithathelwe indawo ukuze lidunge i-IIIA. Yonke imikhiqizo yaseMelika iClass 3R laser IIIA ngaphansi kweBritish Standard.

-Class 3B: Imikhiqizo ye-Laser okuyiyo okubuka kuyo ngokuqondile kugongolo kuhlala kuyingozi. Umbono wokubonisa ukucabanga okuhlukile. Ama-laser we-Class 3B anamandla wokukhishwa aphezulu we-5mW kanye ne-500mW ephezulu (isigamu se-watt). Ama-laser we-Class 3B anamandla anele okubangela ukulimala esweni, ukubuka okuqondile kobukhulu nokubonakaliswa. Lapho ephakeme amandla wokukhipha wefoni, ayanda ingozi yokulimala. Ngakho-ke, ama-laser weklasi we-3B abhekwa njengengozi emehlweni. Kodwa-ke, ubukhulu kanye nobukhulu bokuthi yikuphi ukulimala kwamehlo kusuka ekuchayweni kogongolo lwe-laser yeklasi 3B kuncike ezintweni eziningana kufaka phakathi amandla e-radiant angena esweni nesikhathi sokuchayeka.Izibonelo zeClass 3b zibandakanya ukwelashwa kwe-physiotherapy esetshenziswa ama-lasers kanye nama-lasers amaningi ocwaningo.

-Class 4: Imikhiqizo ye-Laser iyakwazi ukukhiqiza ukukhombisa okunobungozi okuyingozi, umbono oqondile uhlala uyingozi. Zingadala ukulimala esikhunjeni futhi zingadala ingozi yomlilo. Ukusetshenziswa kwabo kudinga ukuqapha ngokweqile. Ama-laser we-Class 4 anamandla wokukhipha angaphezu kwe-500 mW (isigamu se-watt). Akukho mkhawulo ophezulu emandleni. Ama-laser we-Class 4 ayakwazi ukudala ukulimala kwamehlo nesikhumba futhi futhi aletha ingozi yomlilo uma kusetshenziswa amandla aphezulu anele. Ama-Lasers asetshenziselwa ukubonisa okuningi kwe-laser, ukuhlinzwa kwe-laser nokusika izinsimbi kuvame ukuba yimikhiqizo yeClass 4.

I-National Consumer Institute iyaxwayisa
Ukusetshenziswa kwezinhlelo ze-laser Class Class 3A, 3B ne-4 kungabonisa ubungozi hhayi kumsebenzisi kuphela kepha nakwabanye abatholakala kude.
Ngenxa yale ngozi engaba khona, yilabo kuphela abaqeqeshiwe abafinyelela ezingeni elifanele okufanele bavunyelwe ukuthi balawule ngalezo zinhlelo.

6. Imithetho kanye nokulebulwa kwamaLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

Izikhombisi namazinga we-Label laser

Izinkomba zeNational Institute of Consuse:

I-Laser pointer bonke kufanele baphathe ilebula elihleliwe, elibonakalayo ngokucacile futhi elifanelekayo.
Amamaki wombhalo welebula elichazayo kanye nophawu lwengozi kumele kube mnyama emuva ophuzi, ngaphandle kwemikhiqizo ye-Class 1 lapho lo mbala wokuhlanganiswa ungeyona indesary.

Uma usayizi noma ukwakheka komkhiqizo kukwenza kungabhalwa ngampendulo, ilebula izofakwa imininingwane yomsebenzisi iphakethe.

Ngokuya ngohlobo lokulebula okuthile komkhiqizo we-laser kuzoba kanjena:

-Class 1: Imikhiqizo Class 1 kwelebula noma endaweni, enikeza isitatimende esilandelayo: IKHASIMU 1 LASER CO

-Class 2: Imikhiqizo ye-Class 2 kumele iphethe ilebuli yokuxwayisa nophawu lwengozi yemisebe ye-laser. Thatha ilebula echazayo enedatha elandelayo:
· Inganekwane: ISIMEMO SOKUKHANYA KANYE NOKUKHANYA KALULA UNGAQHATSHEKI NOKUFUNDA isigaba seLaser 2
· Amandla aphezulu wemisebe ye-laser ekhishwe
Isikhathi ubude (lapho kufanele))
· I-wave wave ekhunyiwe
· Igama nosuku lokushicilelwa komthetho lapho ukuhlukaniswa komkhiqizo (okungavela kwiphakheji noma ephepheni) kusekelwe khona
Imininingwane enjalo kufanele ihambisane negama elithi CAUTION.

-Class 3A: Ngaphandle kwalokho kuchazwe ku-Class 2 uma le mikhiqizo inamaphaneli wokufinyelela kanye / noma nezinqubo zokuvala ukhiye, ngaphezu kwalokho, inemininingwane elandelayo
ngizobe nginamathisela ilebula ngokulandelayo: UKUQEDA / UKUKHANYA KAKHULU NGALOKHU UKUVULA UNGAQHATHELANI NOKUKHUTHEKA NGEKUYE EYE NOMA ngokuqondile
Amapaneli anezihluthulelo zokuphepha kumele futhi abe nelebuli kwilokhi ngayinye yezokuphepha ebonakala ngaphambi nangesikhathi kokungathathi hlangothi kukhiye futhi kufanele ibekwe eduze nokuvulwa okwenziwe lapho ikhava yokuvikela isuswa ngombhalo olandelayo:
UKUGUNYAZWA KOKUZIPHATHA / KOKUKHALA KULULA KULAPHA UKUVULA NALAPHO LAPHO KUPHELA IZIMPAHLA ZOKUPHEPHA ZOKUVIKELA ZINGAQHATSHELANI NOKUQASHWA NGE NAKED EYE NOMA NGOKUGCWELE NGEMIYALO

-Class 3B: Ngaphandle kokuchazwa kweBanga lesi-2 nele-3A, izinganekwane ezikw ilebula kufanele zisho noma UKUKHANYA KOKUKHANYA KAKHULU KOKUKHANYA KWEMPAHLA YOKUQHAWULA UMKHAKHA KAKHULU KAKHULU KOKUKHULULWA KWESAKHALA / NGOKUVULULA LE LASRADATION
Kumaphaneli wokufinyelela kuzobeka ilebuli ngokulandelayo: UKUDLULA / UKULULA KAKHULU NGOKUVULA LOKUFINYELELEKA UKUQALA KULULA isembozo esivikela ngokulandelayo: ISITOLO / ISIVIVINYO SOKUKHANYA LAPHO KUVULA NALAPHO LOKHO KUKHONA KOKUFANELEKA KOKUKHANYA KOKUVIKELA

-Class 4: Imikhiqizo ye-Class 4 kumele ibe nelebuli yokuxwayisa efakwe uphawu lwengozi yemisebe ye-laser futhi ithathe ilebula echazayo ngolwazi olulandelayo:
· I-Caption noma i-LASER LALER RADE RADE RADEction ye-EYES NOMA SKIN ukuqondisa imisebe noma i-BEAM IS DANGEROUS LASER PRODUCT CLASS 4
· Amandla aphezulu wemisebe ye-laser akhiyiwe
Isikhathi ubude (lapho kufanele))
· I-wavelength ikhishwe
· Igama nosuku lokushicilela okujwayelekile okusekwe kulo isigaba
futhi umkhiqizo ngamunye we-laser kumele uphathe ilebuli enamathiselwe eduze nokuvulwa okukhishwa kuyo imisebe ye-laser le nganekwane elandelayo: I-HAZARDOUS EXPOSURE LASER OPENING / VULA NGALOKULULA
Kumaphaneli wokufinyelela kuzobeka ilebuli ngokulandelayo: ISIBONAKALISO / ISIVIVINYO SOKUKHANYA OKUKHULU NGOKUVULA LE EYE NOMA SKIN ukuqondisa imisebe noma ukukhipha i-BEAM IS DANGEROUS
Amapaneli anokhiye wokuphepha aphethe ilebula ebonakalayo ngaphambi kokungathathi hlangothi kwe-blockade futhi ngokufanayo futhi azotholakala ekuvulekeni okwenziwe ngokususa ikhava yokuzivikela ngokulandelayo: UCWANINGO / UKUKHANYA OKUKHAWULEKILE KULO UKUVULA NALAPHI ukuvinjwa kokuphepha okungathathi hlangothi KUPHELA EYES NOMA SKIN ukuqondisa imisebe noma ukukhipha i-BEAM KULUNGILE

Ezinye izidingo zolwazi:

Kunoma yikuphi, abakhiqizi be-laser pointers kufanele banikeze imininingwane elandelayo kumsebenzisi ekufakweni komkhiqizo futhi uma ngenxa yezizathu zesikhala kunzima, ephepheni elihambisana nomkhiqizo ngaphakathi esitsheni:
a. Ilungele ukufakwa okulungile, ukugcinwa kanye nokusebenza okuphephile kwemiyalo yomkhiqizo we-laser, kufaka phakathi izexwayiso ezicacile eziphathelene nezindlela zokuvikela ukuvikela ukubekeka emisebeni eyingozi ye-laser.
b. Isibonakaliso esifanelekile sokuphambuka kobude bethambo lokugobeka okuhlanganisiwe namayunithi wokuhambisa amandla aphezulu.
c. Ukuphindwa kabusha okusemthethweni (umbala uyazikhethela) wawo wonke amalebula nezixwayiso okumele zixhunywe kumkhiqizo we-laser noma zinikeze umkhiqizo we-laser. isikhundla esihambelanayo sombhalo ngamunye kumkhiqizo kumele sikhonjiswe, noma uma singafakwanga sinqunyelwe kuso, inkomba yokuthi amalebula anjalo awakwazi ukufakwa kumkhiqizo kepha anikezwe ngokufanayo kufanele anikezwe, futhi achaze indlela nendlela ezisebenza ngayo bahlinzekwa.
d. Isibonakaliso esicacile ekusetshenzisweni kokuthola zonke izimbobo ze-laser.
e. Ukucatshangelwa kwamadivaysi okulawula, izilungiselelo kanye nezinqubo zokusebenza nokulungisa, kufaka phakathi isexwayiso "Ukuqapha - Ukusetshenziswa kwamadivayisi wokuqapha noma ukulungiswa noma ukusebenza kwemingcele ngaphandle kwalokhu kuchaziwe lapha, kungahle kuveze imisebe eyingozi."
f. Ukuphepha okungaphakathi kumele kuboniswe kuzo zonke izinhlu, amashidi kanye nezincwajana ezichaza ngezigaba.
Ekugcineni ngaphansi kweRoyal Decree 1468/88, ukufakwa kwelebheli kwale mikhiqizo uma kuthengiswa ngaphandle kokupakishwa noma kwiphakheji kufanele kufake
Ukukhonjwa komkhiqizi onesibopho noma umthengisi osungulwe e-EU, ngekheli lakhe eliphelele
· Batch
· Izici Product
· Inganekwane exwayisa ukuthi ungahambi ugongolo ngqo emehlweni
Yonke imininingwane okwenziwa kuyo ireferensi kufanele ifake, okungenani, ngolimi lwaseSpain, olusemthethweni lweSpanish sombuso, olunezinhlamvu ezicacile, ezivelele, ezingafinyeleleki nezizwisisekayo ngumthengi.

7. Ungayihumusha kanjani ilebuli engekhohlisiwe - Buyela ku-Index

Emhlabeni we-real mW laser pointer bavame ukushintshwa kuma-Nametag abo, ukubeka izibalo ezikhudlwana ukugqama kumncintiswano ngamanani entengo. Ake sibheke isibonelo futhi sincike kulo lonke ulwazi olunikezwe ezahlukweni ezedlule, njengoba singakhomba ngokusobala umaki osolisayo ukuthi ungasiniki ukuba sihambe ngawo.

Isikhombi se-Laser esinamandla we-Fake Label

Lesi yisibonelo esicacile senxenye efakwe ngokungeyikho futhi eqamba amanga. Njengoba ungafunda kwelebula, inani lamandla ayi-3000mW ekhangisiwe ukuthi kusukela ekuqaleni, alihambelani ne-Class 3B futhi ekhonjwa emugqeni wokugcina welebula. Njengoba kuxoxwe kahle esahlukweni sesihlanu salo mhlahlandlela, isigaba se-3B sinqunyelwe ku-500mW, iSigaba 4 sidlula amandla amakhulu.

Into yesibili esenza sisolwe, ubukhulu bekhanda. Ngokuvamile, okunamandla ngokwengeziwe ngokuba nohlelo oluphakeme lokupholisa futhi luqukethe izinto zokukhanya, ngokuya ngenhloko yohlobo lwayo lokwakha.

I-wavelength ephrintwe kwilebula (i-532nm) ihambelana nohlaza. Kwaxoxwa ngakho esahlukweni sesibili, izikhombisi eziluhlaza zakhiwa yi-laser diode yokukhanya okungabonakali kwe-infrared (ku-808nm) namandla aphezulu, okugxile ekhristini elifakwayo elishintsha umbala we-laser, kepha njengoba isikhathi esifanayo, ingxenye ye-infrared ukukhanya kukhanya ingilazi ngombala oluhlaza, kufakwe isihlungi se-infrared (IR) kokukhipha izinsalela ze-infrared. Ngakho-ke, cishe impela, lesi sikhombisi esikhonjiswe esithombeni, asikho isihlungi sombumbulu namandla akhangisiwe (ngaphandle kokungalunganga) afaka zombili amandla wangempela ekukhanyisweni okubonakalayo, njengamandla okuphuma kwe-infrared, lokhu kulimaza kakhulu iso.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunesinye isici abantu abaningi futhi abangasinaka ukuthi amandla amakhulu kakhulu ngokuvamile ahlala engamanga. Isibonelo awusoze waba ngokoqobo i-laser pointer eluhlaza okotshani, obomvu noma mkhulu kuno-500mW violet nohlaza okwesibhakabhaka kuya ku-2000mW.

Njengoba kunzima ukubala noma ukukala umphumela wokukhishwa kwesikhombi se-laser kumthengi ojwayelekile, kubaluleke kakhulu ukubona amasayithi akhethekile anikeza kuphela aqinisekisa ukuthi amandla enikeziwe angokoqobo. Kulula futhi ukuhlukanisa okungokoqobo kusuka ku-mW mbumbulu, okufakazela amandla okushiswa nobubanzi be-laser range ngokuqhathanisa imiphumela ngamatafula alungiselelwe amasayithi akhethekile (amandla-umphumela-wokuphumela).

8. Ukusetshenziswa Kakubi kweLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

Kuyaziwa ukuthi izigidi zabantu emhlabeni wonke zisebenzisa la madivayisi, ngoba zinokusebenzisa okuningi okusebenzayo: azisetshenziswanga kuphela ukukhomba esikrinini lapho sinikeza inkulumo noma senza isethulo, kodwa futhi sisetshenziswa kwezinkanyezi ukuze fundisa izinkanyezi nemizimba yasezulwini, ekuthwebula izithombe zasebusuku njengendlela yokusiza ukugxila kwelensi yekhamera, ukhuphuke usayine uma udinga ukuhlangulwa, ngombukiso okhanyayo, ukuzingela ngokuxhuma okuhambisana nomgqomo wesibhamu, ezindaweni zokucwaninga ukushisa noma ukusika izinto, njalonjalo; kepha noma kunjalo, kuyaziwa futhi ukuthi iningi lalaba bantu ngaphandle kokuzilungiselela ngokwanele, bayabahlukumeza.

Izibonelo ezivame kakhulu zokusebenzisa okuwubuphukuphuku nokungabekezeleli, ezinawo emkhakheni webhola, asetshenziselwa ukuvimbela umdlalo weqembu eliphikisayo futhi iningi lethu esike salibona kuthelevishini, njengabadlali, abaqeqeshi nosompempe Ngabe bekuyinto obekulitshe yona kwalaba abangathembeki.

Ukuhlaselwa kweLaser Pointer noCristiano Ronaldo ebholeni lezinyawo

Yimiphi imiphumela yokuthi abadlali bevezelwe ukukhanya kwe-laser njengaleyo eboniswe ezithombeni?

Kukhona izikhombisi ze-laser zamandla ezihlukile kusuka kwalezo ezingenabungozi kubantu futhi zinamandla we-1 mW (milliwatt) kulawo mandla afinyelela ku-2W (watts). Abaningi babo banamandla amakhulu kakhulu, bayakwazi ukukhanyisa umentshisi, ukuqhuma kwamabhaluni, amapulasitiki avuthayo, isikhumba, izinkuni, njll.

Ukuhlaselwa kweLaser Pointer noMessi emidlalweni yebhola

Ungacabanga ukuthi kusho ukuthini ukuyisebenzisa esisebangeni elisondelene kakhulu: Izifundo ngo-2004 e-US Baveze ukuthi ugesi we-laser we-5mW (milliwatts) wamandla ungadala ukushiswa kwe-retina emabangeni ayi-14 amamitha uma ngabe ichayeka isikhathi eside, ngakho-ke udaba lubucayi impela.

Kodwa-ke ugongolo lwe-laser ekuphumeni kwensiza lunobubanzi be-1 millimeter, luzosakazeka ngebanga, likwazi ukuba nobubanzi obungamamitha ayi-10 kubude obungamamitha angama-70 noma angama-80 nobubanzi obuyi-1.5 metres kubude obu-1 ikhilomitha. Ngakho-ke, njengoba umfundi weso lomuntu enesilinganiso esingu-5 mm, kuba nzima ukuthi la mabanga abe nomthelela ophawulayo esweni noma esikhunjeni, kepha angadala ukungaboni okwesikhashana, ngoba ngisho nokude ngamamitha angama-350, i-laser eyi-5mW amandla angakubangela. Kungaba wumphumela ofanayo okhiqizwe ngukukhanya kwesithombe se-flash ebangeni eliseduze futhi umphumela wawo ungahlala kumaminithi athile.

Ukuhlaselwa kweLaser Pointer endizeni

Ziyinkinga futhi eduzane nasezikhumulweni zezindiza kanye namahora wobusuku, ngoba ngisho nasebangeni elingamakhilomitha amathathu, umugqa wesikhombisi esinamandla we-laser, ungaphazamisa umbono wombonisi womshayeli ngokwanele ukuvimbela ukufika. Lokhu kuyindlela ebucayi kakhulu lapho umshayeli kufanele abeke izinzwa ezinhlanu nokukhazimula lapho-ke kungadukisa, ngoba ikhabethe limnyama, kukhanya kuphela kwezilawuli. Akuyona inhlekelele, kepha akufanele sikhohlwe ukuthi sikhuluma ngomkhumbi onamafutha ngejubane elikhulu, nangabagibeli. Lezi zehlakalo sezande kakhulu, kuholele ekutheni abaphathi bamanye amazwe bavinjele futhi bavimbela ukuthengiswa kwalezi zikhombisi, njengoba kwenzeka e-Australia, okwathi ngo-2008 kwaphasiswa umthetho ovimbela ukutholakala kwamadivayisi we-laser aphethwe izikhombisi ezingenangozi ezazisetshenziswa ezethulweni ezenzeka emhlabeni wezemfundo nakwezamabhizinisi.

9. Ukusetshenziswa Okuphephile Kwe-Laser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

Uma kuqhathaniswa namalambu we-incandescent wendabuko ngokwesibonelo ama-watts ayi-100, ama-5mW (milliwatts) wesibonisi se-laser ejwayelekile amelela amandla amancane kakhulu. Kepha ukukhanya kwe-laser kugxiliwe kakhulu kugxwa oluncane kakhulu futhi kuqondaniswe kahle, okusho ukuthi kuhluka kancane. Ngisho nebanga elingu-1 kilometer, ukukhanya akukuphambuki ngaphezu kwamamitha nohhafu.

Uma ubheke ngqo ugongolo lwe-laser 5mW ebangeni elisondelene, (okuyiqiniso okwenzayo!), Indawo ongayibona ibizokuqhakaza kunelanga (futhi wonke umuntu uyazi ukuthi akufanele ubheke iLangeni ngqo) . Ukuqina kwesibani se-laser nganoma isiphi ibanga kukhulu kakhulu kunanoma yimuphi omunye umthombo wokukhanya wamandla afanayo, ukukhishwa okusakazeka ngaphezu kwe-engile enkulu.

Ama-Lasers eklasi 3B noma i-4 anamandla amakhulu, angaba yingozi ngokwesibonelo, abashayeli bezindiza, ngakho ukusetshenziswa kwawo kulawulwa futhi abashayeli abaqeqeshelwe ukugwema kubo. Inkinga ngama-lasers uqobo ukuthi kunezigidi zazo ezandleni zabathengi, futhi ayikho indlela yokuqinisekisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo okuphephile. Kwamanye amazwe kuyicala ukuqondisa i-laser kumuntu noma emotweni. Kungakho sikubheka njengokubalulekile ukunikeza izeluleko ezithile ezisebenzayo zokuphatha kahle la madivayisi:

Izikhombisi ze-Laser zenzelwe ukukhanyisela izinto ezingaphili. Ama-Dirijas awalokothi ubhekise kubantu, ezilwaneni, ezindizeni noma kwezinye izimoto

Akukho emthethweni ukuqondisa i-laser maqondana nezinhlaka zangasese noma zomphakathi.

· Ungalokothi ubheke ngqo phambi kogongolo kwanoma iyiphi i-laser.

· Ungavumeli ukusetshenziswa kwezikhombisi ze-laser yizingane ngaphandle kokugadwa. Akuzona amathoyizi.

· Ekuhlolweni kokushisa izinto, kubalulekile ukusebenzisa izibuko ezivikelayo ezinombala njengoba ukulimala kwamehlo kungenzeka kungalungiseki futhi kungapheli futhi kususe noma kususwe endaweni lapho kwenziwa khona lo msebenzi, izinto ezingakhanya noma zibangele ukukhanya.

Sebenza ngokukhanya okungcono kakhulu lapho usebenza i-laser. Izinga eliphakeme lokukhanya linikeza isivikelo esikhulu ekulimaleni kwamehlo ngenxa yobubanzi obunciphile bomfundi weso.

· Musa ukuqondisa isibani se-laser esibukweni noma kwenye indawo ecwebezelayo. Ugongolo olubonisiwe lungalimaza amehlo omuntu ngokungazi.

· Musa ukuqondisa i-laser kunoma ngubani osebenzisa ama-binoculars, isibonakude, noma olunye uhlobo lwamathuluzi okukhanya.

· Uma isibonakude sakho sifakelwe i-laser pointer njengenjini yokusesha enohlelo lokukhulula oluyimfihlo, ungayishiyi inganakekelwa uma ivulekile.

· Musa ukuqondisa i-laser esibhakabhakeni uma uzwa umsindo wenjini endizeni eseduze.

Ungasebenzisi i-laser endaweni engaba amakhilomitha ayi-5. Kusuka kunoma yisiphi isikhumulo sezindiza.

· Njengoba sonke sincike ekuphepheni komoya kungasongelwanga, uma sifona umcimbi we-laser ongavikeleka ukusicekela phansi ngasikhathi sinye, kufanele sazise abezokuphepha.

· Ukusetshenziswa kwezinkomba ze-laser akuvunyelwe kwezinye izehlakalo zokubukwa. Kuhlonishwe lokhu kunqatshelwa uma kukhona.

· Hlangana nemithetho ethile yezwe nemithetho yedolobha lapho uzosebenzisa i-laser. Noma eSpain ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwezinhlobo ezahlukile zama-lasers kuvunyelwe, abaphethe bangadinga futhi bahlawuliswe, uma benobufakazi bokuthi busebenzisa ngokungafanele. Kwamanye amazwe afana ne-US noma iNgilandi, enamandla amakhulu njengaleyo yeklasi 3B no-4 inqatshelwe ukuthengisa, njengengxenye yakhe. Kwezinye izingxenye ze-Australia zivinjelwe kuze kube i-1mW ayinangozi.

· Musa ukuthenga isibani se-laser pointer uma kungekho ilebula yokuxwayisa neyokuhlonza isigaba sayo. Yazisa ukusetshenziswa kwezinto ezibonakalayo ezisolisayo.

Izikhombisi zetafula le-Laserisk ezisengozini

10. Ukusetshenziswa Okuyinhloko kweLaser Poers - Buyela ku-Index

10.1. Izethulo - Buyela ku-Index

Isikhombi se-Laser Sezethulo

Izikhombisi ze-Laser zinenkinobho encane elula eyenza kusebenze ukukhanya kwe-laser futhi isetshenziselwe ukukhombisa iphoyinti elithile ebusweni lapho kufakwa isethulo khona. Lolu hlobo lwamaphoyinti lufika luzongena esikhundleni senduku "yenduku" endala esetshenziselwe izinhloso ezifanayo; isikhombisi se-laser siba ukucolisiswa kwezobuchwepheshe kwensimbi.
Kusetshenziswa ngokugqamile kakhulu wedivayisi ezinhlelweni zokwethulwa kwezemfundo / zebhizinisi nemibukiso ebonakalayo ngoba iyithuluzi lokukhomba elihlaba umxhwele. Isikhombi se-laser ebomvu singasetshenziswa kunoma yisiphi isimo ngaphakathi noma ekukhanyeni okuphansi lapho imininingwane ebhalwe phansi ingahle ibe yimbi, njengasemsebenzini wokwakha noma wokuhlobisa ingaphakathi.
I-green laser pointer nayo ingasetshenziselwa izinhloso ezifanayo ne-Presentation ngaphandle phakathi nosuku noma amabanga amade.

Isikhombi se-Laser Sezethulo

Zisetshenziswa futhi izikhulumi zekhompiyutha ezingenazintambo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu.
Bakhipha i-laser ebomvu ngokuvamile, futhi inikwa amandla ibhethri elincane. Akusebenzi nje ukuhambisa ama-slides, ngoba ngaphandle kwezinkinobho zawo futhi kuya ngemodeli, unenye indlela yokuphuma isethulo, khetha esinye isilayidi, futhi angakwazi ukubuyela kukho, ngaphandle kokuthi i-laser ifinyelela kude, ukuze kudonswe ukunaka izilaleli futhi aqokomise izindawo esemqoka ukwethulwa.
Amadivayisi we-plug & Play, afaka nje kuphela isitholi se-USB (esikhipha isichinali imvamisa yomsakazo) bese umshayeli we-USB efakwa ngokuzenzakalelayo emachwebeni wemizuzwana.
Imvamisa ube nobubanzi obufika ku-15m kusuka kwikhompyutha yakho futhi kuyahambelana nezinhlelo ezijwayelekile zokusebenza.

10.2. Izinkanyezi - Buyela ku-Index

Isikhombi se-laser eluhlaza sisetshenziswa izinkulungwane zezazi zezinkanyezi ezingena emhlabeni wonke emhlabeni ukukhombisa abaqalayo indlela eya ezinkanyezini nakwezinkanyezi. I-laser inikwa amandla ibhethri elincane futhi ikhipha uhla oluncane, oluqhakazile lokukhanya okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ngama-nanometer angama-532 nanometers. Ebusuku ugongolo lubonakala kumakhilomitha athile, kuye ngesimo sezulu.
Izikhombisi ze-laser ezisetshenziswa yizazi zezinkanyezi zisebenzisa i-neodymium laser diode enamandla angu-200mW, zibonakala zikhanya kakhulu kunokujwayelekile okujwayelekile kukhanyisa isibomvu esibomvu esinama-wavelength amakhulu kune-630 nanometers wavelength. Isizathu silula: iso lomuntu lizwela kakhulu ukukhanya okuluhlaza kunokuba kubomvu.

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ze-AstronomyI-Big Dipper ne-Little dipper ehlukaniswe ugongolo lwe-laser pointer 200mW verder GreenFire.
Inani eliphelele lamakhilogremu amakhilomitha ayi-10. Kubukeka sengathi i-laser ingakwazi "ukuthinta" izinkanyezi.

Ngobusuku obucacile, uma i-laser eluhlaza eyi-200mW iqondiswe esibhakabhakeni, kuwe nakunoma ngubani osondele ngokushesha, kubonakala sengathi ugongolo luphela ngenkanyezi noma iplanethi ekhonjisiwe. Lokhu kwenza kube lula kakhulu ukukhombisa noma iyiphi, into enikezwe. Vele ukhombe i-laser bese uthi, "Bheka lapho."

Iningi lama-lasers lisebenza kuphela ngenkathi ubambe ukushintshela phansi, kepha amanye amamodeli anohlelo lokukhanya logodo olugcinekile.Lokhu sekusetshenziswe ngokwengeziwe njengezinkomba zezeteleskopu. Lapho usuqoqiwe futhi uhambisane nakho, mane uhambise isibonakude kuze kube yilapho i-laser ikhomba into futhi izoba sendimeni yokubuka.

Usebenzisa i-Laser Pointer ngeTeleskophu ye-Astronomy

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ziyindlela engcono kakhulu yokuhlonza noma yini esibhakabhakeni emphakathini futhi kungaba yihlazo lawa mathuluzi awusizo emfundo, akhawulelwe ngumthetho.
Izazi zezinkanyezi ze-Amateur zingasiza ekunciphiseni le ngozi zisebenzisa zona ngomqondo ojwayelekile, zilandela izeluleko ezinikezwe ezahlukweni ezedlule, futhi zifundise abanye ngokusetshenziswa okuphephile kwalawa madivayisi.

10.3. Ukuhlola - Buyela ku-Index

Noma nini lapho kwenziwa izivivinyo ezivuthayo ngama-laser pointers (kuphela futhi enzelwe izinjongo zokufundisa kuphela), kudingekile ngokuphelele ukusebenzisa i-wavegows ezithile zokuvikela ukukhipha i-laser. Qinisekisa ukuthi ayithwali bungozi kumsebenzisi noma kwabanye abantu, futhi iyahambelana nobudala.

Izingilazi Zokuphepha I-Laser PoersKokuhlolwa okwenziwa nge-laser pointers i-eyewear ethile evikela njalo kuyadingeka kwi-wavelength esiyisebenzisayo

Sidlula izibonelo ezimbalwa zalokho esikwazi ukukwenza lamadivayisi amancane:

· Ukushisa izikhwama zepulasitiki

Cishe noma iyiphi i-laser pointer Class 3B ikwazi ukushisa izikhwama zepulasitiki. I-Runtime iyahlukahluka ngokuya ngombala namandla e-laser, ibanga kanye nombala wesikhwama. Ngakho-ke, kusuka ku-20mW green laser pointer, ebomvu i-50mW noma i-100mW violet laser laser, futhi ukwazi ukuyishayela.

Ukushisa Izikhwama Zepulasitiki ezivuthayo ze-Laser

Uma uhlelo lwe-laser ye-DPSS lukhipha ukukhanya okuluhlaza okotshani noma okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, indlela yokwenza lula ukushiswa kwezikhwama, kufiphaza usibani okhanyayo kakhulu. Lokhu kuzokutholela ikhanda amabanga asondele kakhulu, iphuzu lokuqina okukhulu kwamandla, ngoxhaxha lwamatshe okukhanya okuncane kakhulu. Uma sibeka isikhwama lapho, ugongolo lubhoboze kalula.

Ukushiswa Kwephepha Lokufaka Isilinganisi Laser

Ukwenza lula ukudonsa kufanele kushiywe izikhwama ezimnyama noma ezimnyama njengemibala ekhanyayo edonsa amandla amaningi noma yenze uphawu olunophawu olukhomba ezindaweni lapho luzothinta khona ugongolo.

Ukuxhaphaza amabhaluni

Kancane kancane ama-lasers anamandla akwazi ukuxhaphaza amabhaluni. Isikhathi sizofika ngokuya ngombala namandla e-laser, ibanga, umbala webhaluni nokunye ukucatshangelwa kwesibili njengokushisa kwezemvelo kanye nomswakama ohlobene. Izikhombi ezibomvu ze-100mW zilungele le njongo kepha noma yimuphi umbala ungayenza ngaphandle kwezinkinga. Ngakho-ke, i-laser pointer eluhlaza eyi-200mW ingaqhuma ibhaluni ngomzuzwana ohlukanisayo, kodwa esikhundleni salokho i-laser eluhlaza engu-50mW idinga imizuzwana eminingana.

Ukuxhaphaza iGreener Laser Pointer Globe

Umbala we-balloon ubaluleke kakhulu. Kungani? Umbala omnyama we-matte udonsa amandla amaningi kuneminye imibala, ngakho-ke kulula kakhulu ukuxhaphaza ibhaluni elimnyama noma elimnyama nelinombala okhanyayo. Uma usebenzise ingilazi encane yokukhulisa ukushisa izinto, ukhumbula ukuthi kwenzeka okuthile: izinto zashiswa zaba mnyama nokumhlophe ngaso leso sikhathi kwathatha ukushiswa okwengeziwe. Isihluthulelo ukukhanya okukhanyisa bese kuvumela okumhlophe (kwe-laser kukhonkotha futhi kusabalalise ingxenye ngaphakathi kwebhaluni ngakho-ke abakwazi ukushisa) futhi kudonsa umbala omnyama.

Ukuqhuma iGlobe Violet Laser Pointer

I-laser pointer ingaqhuma ibhaluni imnyama kodwa kunalokho ayinamphumela kumhlaba omhlophe. Kulezi zimo ungavele upende ifulege ngokumaka omnyama, endaweni lapho siqondisa khona ugongolo lwe-laser ukuyishayela ngokungenakuphikiswa.

· Ukuguqula umentshisi

Umkhuba ojwayelekile kakhulu phakathi kwabalandeli, ukukhanyisa umentshisi usebenzisa i-pointer. Uma i-laser ene-focuser, indlela yokwenza lula ukuboshwa komdlalo, ifiphaza ugongolo olushiwo ngaphambili. Uma endaweni yokungena kakhulu, okukude nebanga lesikhombi, faka ikhanda lomdlalo, lokhu kuzojika ngokushesha uma sisebenzisa amandla we-100mW noma ngaphezulu.

Umdlalo wokukhanyisa we-Laser Pointer

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ngaphandle kwe-focuser singasiza ngengilazi ekhulisa ngokugxila ngokuphelele ugongolo lwe-laser ukushisa ngisho nomdlalo omnyama wokupenda omnyama ukuze ukwazi ukushisa kalula.

· Phendukela ugwayi

Guqula ama-Cigars nge-Laser Sight

Uma ubhema futhi usuphelelwe yimidlalo yomibili nge-laser light, ungakhathazeki ngoba ungaphenduka i-cigar isebenzisa i-laser light, inqobo nje uma lokhu kungamandla avela ku-200mW.

· Shisa amakhadibhodi alukhuni nepulasitiki

Ukushiswa kwamakhadibhodi ngeLaser Pointer

Amaphoyinti anamandla aphezulu kusuka ku-300mW okungeziwe kokungenhla nawo ayakwazi ukushisa amakhadibhodi kanye nepulasitiki eqinile.

Ukushisa okuqinile kwePulasitiki ngeLaser Pointer

Izinkuni ezivuthayo

Ukushisa izinkuni nge-laser pointer

I-2W enamandla kuphela anamandla kakhulu aluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ayenamandla okushisa izinkuni.
Ngokusobala njengoba sandisa amandla e-laser, kufanele futhi siqaphele futhi sisebenzise kakhulu izindlela zokuphepha nobuqotho balabo ababandakanyeka ocwaningweni, bavikelwe ngokufanele futhi silandela izincomo eziseSahlukweni 9 salolu chungechunge lwezihloko.

10.4. Izithombe Zasebusuku - Buyela ku-Index

Wonke umthwebuli wezithombe amateur uyazi ukuthi indlela efanele yokuthwebula, inquma impumelelo yesithombe esihle. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, indlela enganele ilimaza isifinyezo esingahle simelele okwehlukile futhi okungachazeki.Namuhla, cishe wonke amakhamera akhona emakethe anikeza i-autofocus isebenza kahle ezimeni ezinhle zokukhanya. Amanye amakhamera acwebile kanye nawo wonke amabhuloho noma amakhamera we-SLR anikezela ukugxila okubhaliwe okuvumela umthwebuli wenkululeko lapho ecacisa iphuzu ngqo lokugxilwe kulo.

Kodwa-ke, izinto ziba nzima ekukhanyeni okuphansi. Amakhamera amaningi awakwazi ukugxila kahle ngoba izinhlelo zawo zisebenza ngokusebenza uma zibona umehluko futhi uma kungekho phuzu elinamandla ngokwanele ngaphakathi kohlaka, njengokukhanya kwemigwaqo yomgwaqo noma ukukhanya kwenyanga, ikhamera eqhubekela phambili iqhubekela phambili kwelitshe, okwenza kungabikhona yenza isethulo.

Inkinga iyanda ekuthombeni kwezithombe emkhakheni, lapho kufanele uguqukele ekugxiliseni okwenziwa ngesandla, okwandayo ubunzima obugxile kumabanga asondele kakhulu. Noma uma ufuna ukwenza ukubonwa kwezithombe ebusuku kusetshenziswe isikhathi eside ogwini, kube namagagasi ephuka, njll, ngoba ikhamera ayigxili kithi ngoba akukho ukukhanya okwanele kuyo. Sinamathuba amaningi okudlule kuwo: gxila esweni.

Bala i-hyperfocal (ibanga phambili naphambili emuva lizophuma ligxile esithombeni. Ngaleyo ndlela akudingeki ukuthi ugxile endaweni efanele, kepha eyodwa eduzane).

Noma njengokujwayelekile sinekhamera ku-tripod, mane nje ukhombe isandla se-laser kuze kube sezingeni lapho sifuna ukugxila kukho. Njengoba ukukhanya kwe-laser kungokwamandla amakhulu kakhulu, ikhamera ngeke ibe nazinkinga ekutholeni iphuzu lokukhanya okungena kuhlaka. (Qaphela: ayilunge kakhulu ama-lasers anamandla amakhulu, ngoba uma ibonakala kakhulu ngaphandle komugqa wendlela, ingakhohlisa ukugxila kwekhamera Khetha uma ikhamera ivumela, iphuzu lokugxila kulolu hlobo lokusebenzisa izikhombisi ze-laser ngaphezulu. Zingalungele ukuba luhlaza nge amandla aphakathi kuka-50 no-100mW.).
Lapho ikhamera isitholile futhi yagxila ekuphetheni koxhaxha lwe-laser, ungabeka okugxilwe kuyo ngamandla, ucishe bese ugcine i-laser ephaketheni lakho, ukhombe bese udubula ngaphandle kwakho bese uzama ukugxila kwikhamera. Elula kakhulu futhi ephumelelayo.

Futhi njengobufakazi balokhu, lesi sithombe. Njalo sithola imiphumela efanele.

Isithombe sasebusuku nge-Laser Pointer

10.5. I-Airsoft - Buyela ku-Index

I-airsoft ngumdlalo wezemidlalo namasu asuselwa ekulinganiseni kwezempi. Lona ngumdlalo wezempi usebenzisa izibhamu eziyimibhalo ephindayo ezishisa amabhola amancane epulasitiki angamasayizi angu-6 noma 8 mm ubukhulu, owaziwa ngokuthi ama-BB. Igama elithi "airsoft" lihunyushwa ngokuthi "umoya opholile", libhekise endleleni yokuncintisana yezinhlamvu.

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ze-Airsoft

Izimo zomdlalo zivame ukufakwa ngezinto ezinikeza iqiniso elifanayo ezindaweni zangempela ezifana nezempi nezempi, njengamavili avikelayo, ophethe amabhuzu, ama-binoculars, izibuko, amalambu, amamephu, iziteshi zomsakazo, njll. Imishini, enikeza ithuba elithile ekuxhumaneni kanye nokutholwa kwabadlali abayizitha.

Wonke umsizi womdlali kufanele abe nezikhali futhi impinda yayo ibe nezinyathelo zobuso kanye nokuqapha komlomo ngamamaski we-neoprene nezigobela ezihlangabezana nokuvunyelwa komthelela we-EN166B (noma omkhulu) (Babamba kuze kufike ku-6 Joules wamandla we-kinetic. Amandla aphezulu we-kinetic ama-projectiles avumelekile ngaphansi kwama-3 Joules) .Ngaphezu kwalokho kwenqatshelwe ukuwasusa ngesikhathi somdlalo.

I-Laser Gun, Isibhamu se-Airsoft

Ngemuva kokuthola inombolo yemithelela okuvunyelwene ngayo, umdlali uyaqedwa. Amabhola asetshenzisiwe angukukhishwa kwejubane okungu-100 m / s (kwimpendulo ejwayelekile engashicilelwanga). Isisindo esiphansi salokhu senza ibanga lakho eliphumelelayo lingadluleli ngaphezu kwamamitha angama-30- 40. Ama-projectiles asindayo (kusuka ku-0.30 kuya ku-0.48 amagremu) kuvame ukusetshenziselwa i-sniper enobude obude, ngoba azinzile ngokwendiza futhi anzima kunokuba aphambukiswa ngumoya, ngaleyo ndlela enikeza ukunemba okwengeziwe.

ISpanish Federation of Airsoft isetha amabanga okuphepha aphansi lapho isibhamu singakwazi ukuqothulwa, sisuka ngaphansi kwamamitha ayi-5 ngesibhamu endaweni yamamitha angama-30 ngesibhamu.

Ngaphandle kokuphindaphindeka kanjalo, ukwandisa ukusebenza kwabo kuvame ukungeza noma yiziphi izesekeli, njengokubona kwe-laser noma i-telescopic bipod, silencer, njll.

Bheka Green Laser Gun Airsoft

Njengoba kushiwo emithethweni yezinto zokwenziwa zeSpanish Federation of Airsoft, bobabili abaqambi be-laser bazivumelanisa nesimaki, njengama-lasers noma izikhombisi ezifanayo ezingasetshenziswa ukwenza ukuqondiswa noma ukuqamba imigomo kuvunyelwe, uma nje kungeyona uhlobo lwe-laser ukuthi kungadala ukulimala ngomphumela oqondile noma ukuveza ukukhanya.

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-laser njengokusekela inhloso yezimpendulo kuncike ekusetshenzisweni okunengqondo, futhi umthetho wokungakhombisi ngokuqondile kunoma yimuphi umdlali emehlweni ngokuzithandela. Ukuvezwa okuqhubekayo e-retina nganoma yiluphi uhlobo lwe-laser kungadala ukulimala kwamehlo okungalungiseki.

Isiphetho: ngemisebenzi yesikhathi sasemini, ekahle i-laser eluhlaza okomhlaba ophansi, ngoba njengoba kuxoxiwe ezahlukweni ezedlule, iphuzu le-laser eluhlaza libonakala kakhulu kunobomvu, ngakho-ke sithola okuthile okuwusizo kakhulu ngokudubula ngaphandle kwephuzu ngoba akulimalanga, kodwa nganoma iyiphi indlela ukuvikela iso ukukhomba emilenzeni nasezinkalweni, kuxazulula izimo ezimbalwa eduze, okungaba "nokuqumbana" nenhlamba.

Futhi khumbula ukuthi ngalobo busuku ne-CQB (izinkundla zokulwa kunalokho kuvalwe njengezakhiwo nokunye), i-pointer ebomvu eyi-100mW noma ngaphansi isebenza ngokuphelele, njengokuthi akubeki umuntu ofake izambatho, ngoba ubhedu obomvu Kunobunzima ngokwengeziwe ukwahlukanisa okuluhlaza, uma kungenjalo ukubuka kusukela ngaphambili.

10.6. Ukuzingela - Buyela ku-Index

Lesi sengezo esisebenzayo sokuzingela, sithuthukisa ukunemba kwendlela elula kunazo zonke, bese sakha ugongolo lwe-laser (obomvu noma oluhlaza okotshani) olunobubanzi obusebenzayo obufika kumamitha angama-200 (ngokuya ngokukhanya okukhona) kwithagethi ekhonjisiwe. Lolu hlobo lwamaphoyinti we-laser angafakwa ngqo kusibhamu noma endaweni ebonakalayo ye-telescopic enezesekeli zayo, futhi ivumela ukulungiswa okubheke phezulu nangaphezulu.

Isikhombi se-Laser Sokuzingela

Uma ukuzingela kunconyelwa obomvu ebusuku ngemibhoshongo engu-200 noma engama-300mW futhi kuhlanganiswe nethoshi.Ama-lasers aluhlaza afaneleka kakhulu ekuzingeleni kwasemini ngoba okuluhlaza kubonakala kakhulu kunanoma yimuphi omunye umbala, ngobusuku ubuso bakhe babungabonakala busuka kumamitha amamitha kude futhi bayofuna ukuzingela hhayi ukufaka iklabhu yobusuku.

Ingasebenza ngqo ngenkinombo ehambisanayo noma ixhunywe kwintambo eyeluliwe nges switch esifakiwe futhi ivumela ukusebenza i-laser pointer ngenkathi umunwe wakho usesiqwini.

I-Laser Sight yesibhamu

Ngaphezu kwalokho, lolu hlobo lwamaphoyinti lungasetshenziswa ekuzingeleni nasezinethulweni, imicimbi, amakilasi, njll.

Izinkomba ezinje nazo zingobunzima. Ilanga eligcwele emsebenzini wokushintshana, indawo ye-laser ingasho lutho, ngakho amabanga amade awaphumeleli. Ngakho-ke i-pointer kufanele isetshenziswe ebangeni eliseduze noma ngokukhanyisa okuncane noma okungekho.


Amamodeli wezobuchwepheshe athuthukile futhi wanamuhla asebenzisa ama-laser aphezulu okusebenza kahle futhi acacisiwe ukusetshenziswa kwangaphandle, ukulandelwa kwezilwane, njll.

Abaqambi be-Laser bokuzingela

Abaqambi basebenza kakhulu kumzingeli, ngoba banikeza inzuzo enkulu lapho beqoka futhi bekhanyisela ucezu lokuzingela amabanga amangazayo. Vele, ungagibela kanye nombukiso wesibhamu ukuze uzuze inhlanganisela ekhangayo. Ukukhanya okuluhlaza nakho kuyinto okufanele icabangele ukusabela kwezingcezu zokuzingela ezikhanyiselwe yiyo.

Ekuqalweni kokuqala kungabonakala njengokukhanya kwethoshi; kodwa empeleni yithuluzi lokubona ebusuku ebusuku, izici zalo namandla alo okudlula ngale kwalokho okungabolekisa ngethoshi lendabuko, noma ngabe kunesidingo futhi esingasetshenziswa njengenye yazo.

Ubuchwepheshe busebenzisa ukukhanya okuhlanganisiwe okuhlanganisiwe, okusebenza kahle kakhulu ekukhanyiseni ibanga elide usebenzisa i-laser eluhlaza kuyo ngamandla okuphuma kwayo ayi-50mW. futhi i-collimator ye-Optical ivumela ukulungiswa okugcwele okwenziwe ngesandla kwedayari yobubanzi namandla okukhanya kokujika okukodwa okuyi-180 degree. Okusho ukuthi, ungagxila ku-lens ngokujikeleza i-collimator ngentando, uthole ukukhanya ukufinyelela imigomo ebangeni lamamitha angama-465. Ngokusobala, ubukhulu buzohlala buthonywe yizimo zemvelo: imvula, inkungu, uthuli ...

Abaqambi kungenzeka ukuthi bagxile ekukhanyiseni okugcwele lapho kudingeka khona, ngenani elincane lokulahlekelwa kwamandla "ngokuchichima" futhi banikeze ukulawula okugcwele koxhaxha lwe-laser ngokukhanyisa okukhulu kwento oyifunayo. Kodwa-ke, ungakhohlwa ukuthi naye uzoba nomthombo omuhle wokukhanya kweminye imisebenzi eminingi kanye nezimo eziningi, kubandakanya ukuphuthumayo, ukutakula, ukulandela umkhondo, ukusayina, njll. Futhi kwenzeka ukuthi ugongolo lwe-laser lubonakala kumabanga amade.

Futhi njengasikhathi sonke, kubikwa okokuqala kumthetho esifundeni ngasinye maqondana nemikhawulo ekuzingeleni, njengokuvame ukusetshenziswa kwama-silencers, amadivaysi ekukhanyiseni okuhlosiwe, amadivaysi okubona akha ingxenye yesiguquli noma isithombe se-elekthronikhi nezinye ukuqina, njll.

10.7. Okokukhuluma - Buyela ku-Index

Emidlalweni yokudonsa, ungajabulela ukufinyelelwa kobuchwepheshe obuningi obucishe buqondiswe njalo ekuthuthukiseni ukunethezeka nenhlala kahle yokudoba ngaphansi kwamanzi olwandle, noma lapho kufaneleka khona ukuze kuqhutshekwe nokufinyeleleka kulo msebenzi.

Phakathi kwezinhlobonhlobo zezesekeli ezitholakalayo, ama-lasers nawo ayathengiswa ngezibhamu ezidonsa kanzima, ezingangeni manzi kufinyelela kumamitha angama-20.

I-Laser Pointer Amanzi angenamanzi, Amanzi, Amelana Namanzi

Ngokusobala, umbala we-laser kufanele ube luhlaza, ngoba ubonakala kakhulu kumbala wamehlo, futhi ukuqina kwawo kunamandla futhi endaweni yasolwandle ayilahleki kalula njengokubomvu, okuye kulahlekelwe cishe ngamamitha ayi-12, njengoba kucishe kungenzeki emkhakheni wethu wokubuka.

Ingafakwa kuhlanganiswe zombili izibhamu kanye nezibhamu zerabha enjoloba, ekugcineni, ebekwe phansi kwephayiphu.

Ukukhuluma ngeLaser Pointer

Lokhu okufakiwe kwenze ukuthi isibhamu kube sengathi ngesitshitshi bese kuvula inkathazo Ngabe sifuna ukuba ngabasubathi silwe nalutho endaweni enobutha okungeyona eyethu, noma simane sisuka kude?

Kunoma ikuphi, ngaphambili kubikwe ukuthi kufundwa umthetho wamanje, imithethonqubo nemithetho ethile uma kwezinye izindawo bekungavunyelwe ukusetshenziswa kwayo.

10.8. Imikhosi nemibukiso - Buyela ku-Index

Ukuzijabulisa emaphathini nemibukiso kungenye yezicelo ezitholakele kuma-lasers. Ukusetshenziswa okuvame kakhulu kwama-lasers kwezokuzijabulisa kungabonakala emithethweni ekhethekile esetshenziswe kwimibukiso ye-laser. Amakilabhu, imikhosi namakhonsathi angaphandle asebenzisa ama-laser amakhulu, izindlela zokuphepha, njengombukiso. Imibukiso ye-Laser ivame ukweqisa, ama-lens, izibuko kanye nomusi.

I-Kaleidoscopic Laser pointer enekhanda

Amanye amamodeli izikhombisi ze-laser alungiselelwe ukuqaqa ikhanda elingaguquki, elihunyushwa ngaphakathi kwe-kaleidoscope encane, evumela imiphumela eminingi yokukhanya, okwandisa ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zikhombisi futhi ikwenze kube kuhle ukudala ukubukwa okubukwayo.

Umphumela we-Kaleidoscope wesikhombi se-laser

I-Kaleidoscope yishubhu equkethe izibuko ezintathu ezakha uhlangothi olungunxantathu ohlangothini lwalo olubonisayo lubheke ngaphakathi, ekugcineni kukhona amashidi amabili aqhamukayo phakathi kwazo kukhona izinto eziningana zemibala ehlukahlukene nobukhulu, obukhulu izithombe zabo ziphindeka ngokulinganayo lapho uvula ithubhu ngenkathi ubheka ekugcineni okuphambene. Lezi zibuko zingahlelwa ngezindawo ezihlukile. Kukhiqizwa izithombe ezingama-45 kwezingu-XNUMX. Abangu-60 babone izimpinda eziyisithupha nezingama-90 ezine.

Ukuphela