UKUHLELA KWAMAHHALA EMHLABENI WONKE

Dictionary

Lapha uzofunda incazelo yamagama ajwayelekile asetshenziswe emhlabeni we-laser.

-I-Laser Pointer

I-laser pointer iyithuluzi elincane elikhipha ukukhanya kwe-laser, imvamisa eluhlaza okotshani noma obomvu, okuvame ukusetshenziselwa ukukhombisa iphoyinti noma indawo ethile. Imvamisa, i-laser pointer iyithuluzi elibalulekile ekwenzeni isethulo sephrojekthi, isampula elithile phuzu ebalazweni, njll.

Izikhombisi ze-Laser zinenkinobho encane esebenza kusebenze ukukhanya kwe-laser futhi isetshenziselwe ukukhombisa iphoyinti elithile ebusweni lapho kufakwa khona isethulo. Lolu hlobo lwamaphoyinti lufika luzongena esikhundleni senduku "yenduku" endala esetshenziselwe izinhloso ezifanayo; isikhombisi se-laser siba ukucolisiswa kwezobuchwepheshe kwensimbi.

Igama le-laser livela esiNgisini futhi yigama leli: "Ukuthuthukiswa Kokukhanya Ngamandla Okhipha Imisebe", futhi lokho kuhumushela eSpain ngokuthi "ukukhulisa ukukhanya ngokukhishwa kwemisebe okuvuselelekile."

Isici esithile se-laser, esivumela ukusetshenziswa kwaso njengesikhombi sokwethulwa kubizwa ngokuthi ukuqondiswa. Lesi sici ukuthi ugongolo lwe-laser aluhlakazeki njengogongolo olujwayelekile lokukhanya. Phakathi kwezinye izici ze-laser yimisebe ehambisanayo, ukuthi, lapho igesi kagesi idlula kuyo, imisebe ikhishwa ngendlela ye-infrared, evumela ukuthi i-laser ibonakale esweni lomuntu.

Ngokuqondene nezikhombisi ze-laser ukusetshenziswa okuvame kakhulu yilokhu: ukuzijabulisa, ukubhula ngezinkanyezi, ukuthwebula izithombe, izibonakaliso, izivivinyo, izethulo, izifundo, ukubukwa okubukwayo, ukuhlolwa kwezindlebe, izindlebe, ukubuka izintaba, ukuzingela, i-airsoft...

Kodwa i-laser ayisetshenziswa kuphela njenge-pointer, ngenxa yezimpawu zayo, i-laser isetshenziswa emikhakheni ehlukahlukene. Ingatholakala kubadlali be-CD, izinhlelo ze-fiber optic, kanye nasendaweni yezokwelapha nezimboni. Isibonelo, endaweni yezempilo, ungathola ukuthi i-laser isetshenziswa ekusikeni nasekuxhakathiseni izicubu zomzimba, ngoba ivumela lezi zinqubo ezimbili ngesinyathelo esisodwa futhi ngaphandle kokwenza omunye umonakalo. Futhi yayisetshenziselwa ukuhlinzwa kwamehlo, ukubhoboza amathambo nokuhlolwa kwelebhu.

-mW (Milliwatt - milliwatt)

I-English milliwatt noma i-milliwatt (mW) iyisigatshana secandelo lamandla we-International System of Units eyaziwa ngeWatt noma iWat futhi oluphawu lwayo nguW.

Amandla okuphuma kwemishini kagesi aboniswa kuma-watts, noma angenawo amandla futhi akhomba kakhulu ama-laser, asebenzisa isisulu sawo esithi milliwatt silingana nenkulungwane le-watt.

Okusho ukuthi, i-laser pointer 200mW amandla afanayo ne-0.2W. Musa ukudida i-mW (milliwatts) nge-MW (megawatts).

I-watt eyodwa ilingana ne-1 joule ngomzuzwana (1 J / s) futhi ingenye yamayunithi akhishwe. Echazwe amayunithi asetshenziswa ngogesi, amandla kagesi owodwa we-watt akhiqizwa ngumehluko ongaba khona we-1 V kanye negesi kagesi eyi-1 ampere (1 volt-ampere).

Igama elithi "watt" yi-Castilianization watt, iyunithi eyaqanjwa ngemuva kukaJames Watt ngeqhaza lakhe ekwakhiweni kwenjini yemfutho, futhi yamukelwa yiCongress yesiBili yeBritish Association for the Advance of Science ngonyaka we-1889 kanye neNgqungquthela Jikelele Yeshumi nanye. kuma-Weight and Measure ngo-1960 futhi kwakhela uphiko lwamandla ku-International System of Units.

Emhlabeni wezinkomba zangempela ze-mW laser pointer zivame ukushintshwa kwizitikha zazo zobunikazi, zibeka amanani akhulu kakhulu ukuvela emncintiswaneni ngamanani entengo. A Kuzoba nzima ukubala noma ukukala umphumela uqobo we-pointer Laser kumthengi ojwayelekile, kubaluleke kakhulu ukubona amasayithi akhethekile anikeza kuphela aqinisekisa ukuthi amandla enikeziwe angokoqobo. Kulula futhi ukuhlukanisa okungokoqobo kusuka ekuhlolweni kwamandla okuyi-mW nokushiswa kwebanga le-laser ngokuqhathanisa imiphumela ngamatafula alungiselelwe amasayithi akhethekile (umphumela wamandla). E-TorLaser babe namatafula amaningi qhathanisa futhi iziqondiso umehluko wangempela mW.

-Class

I-UNE EN 60825-1 / A2-2002, imikhiqizo ye-laser, kucatshangelwa amandla e-wavelength, okuqukethwe kwamandla namandla okushaya kwenhliziyo kogongolo lwe-laser ahlukaniswe ngezigaba ezilandelayo:

· Isigaba 1: Imikhiqizo ye-Laser iphephile ngaphansi kwazo zonke izimo ezibonakalayo zokusebenzisa, kufaka phakathi ukusetshenziswa kwamathuluzi wokubona ngombono oqondile.

· Isigaba 1M: Ama-Lasers akhipha uhla lwama-wavelength (lambda) phakathi kwama-302.5 no-4000 nm aphephile ezimweni ezisetshenziselwa ukubonwa kwangaphambili, kodwa angaba yingozi uma kusetshenziswa amathuluzi we-optical ukubuka okuqondile.

· Isigaba 2: (Amandla phakathi kuka-1 no-5 mW). Ama-Lasers akhipha imisebe ebonakalayo ebangeni lama-wavelength aphakathi kuka-400 no-700 nm. Ukuvikelwa kwamehlo kuvame ukutholwa izimpendulo zokuphambuka kufaka phakathi i-eyelid Reflex. Lokhu kusabela kunganikeza isivikelo esanele ngenkathi kusetshenziswa izinsimbi zamehlo.

· Isigaba 2M: Ama-Lasers akhipha imisebe ebonakalayo (400 kuya ku-700 nm). Ukuvikelwa kwamehlo kuvame ukutholwa izimpendulo zokuphambuka kufaka phakathi i-eyelid reflex, kepha umbono woxhaka ungaba yingozi uma kusetshenziswa izinsimbi zamehlo.

· Isigaba 3R: Ama-Lasers aphuma phakathi kwe-302.5 ne-106 nm, ukubukwa okuqondile kogongolo kuyingozi kodwa ingozi yawo iphansi kuneLaser 3B lasers. Zidinga izidingo ezimbalwa zokukhiqiza nezinyathelo zokulawula ezisetshenziswa kumsebenzisi we-Class 3B lasers. Umkhawulo wokukhipha okufinyeleleka ungaphansi kwezikhathi ezi-5 i-LEA Class 2 ebangeni le-400-700 nm, futhi ngaphansi kwezikhathi ezi-5 i-LEA Class 1 kwamanye amagagasi.

· Isigaba 3B: (Amandla we-5 kuye ku-500mW) .Ingabasebenzisi ababona umbono oqondile wogongolo bahlala beba yingozi njalo (isib. Ngaphakathi kwe-Nominal Ocular Hazard Ibanga) .Umbono wokuboniswa kokusebenzisa kabi uvame ukuphepha.

· Isigaba 4: (Ngaphansi kuka-500mW Amandla). Ama-lasers nawo angakhiqiza imicabango eyingozi yokuphamba. Zingadala umonakalo esikhunjeni futhi zingaba yingozi yomlilo. Ukusetshenziswa kwabo kudinga ukuqapha ngokweqile.

-nm (Nanometer - Wavelength)

I 'nqunu' iyunithi yobude olilingana nesigidi sezigidi zamamitha. "INano" isho isigidigidi esisodwa.
Kuvame ukusetshenziselwa ukukala ubude bemisebe ye-ultraviolet, imisebe ye-infrared nokukhanya. Isimboli ngu-nm.

Ubude be-wave yisikhathi sendawo kanye nebanga ukusuka ekushayweni kuya ekudonselweni. Imvamisa babebheka amaphuzu amabili alandelana anesigaba esifanayo: 2 ubukhulu, 2 ubuncane, ukuwela okungu-2. Isibonelo, ibanga elihanjwa ngumbala ohlaza okwesibhakabhaka (ohamba ku-299,792,458 m / s) ngesikhathi esiphakathi kwe-2 kagesi olandelanayo noma amandla kazibuthe esikhathi esilandelanayo, uwukukhanya kokukhanya okwesibhakabhaka. Isibani esibomvu sihamba ngejubane elifanayo, kepha insimu kagesi inyuka futhi incipha kancane kunokukhanya okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ngakho-ke, ukukhanya okubomvu kuzoba nemvamisa ephansi okwenza i-wavelength yabo (ibanga phakathi kwamaphuzu afanayo wegagasi) likhulu. Ngakho-ke i-wavelength yokukhanya okubomvu inkulu kune-wavelength yokukhanya okwesibhakabhaka.

Imisebe ye-Laser imisebe ye-electromagnetic ekhiqizwa ngumkhiqizo we-laser ebangeni lama-wavelength phakathi kuka-180 nm no-1 mm, okhishwa ngenxa yokuphuma kokukhanya.

Ububanzi bama-wavelength phakathi kuka-180 nm no-1 mm, kufaka nemisebe ye-ultraviolet, imisebe ebonakalayo nemisebe ye-infrared ngokulandelana okulandelayo:

· 180-400 nm - UV
· 400-700 nm - kuyabonakala
· 700 nm - 1 mm - infrared

Izikhombisi ze-Laser ngokusobala ngenxa yokusebenza kwazo zihlala zikhipha uhla olubonakalayo ingxenye enkulu yogongolo lwayo, yize kuya ngekhwalithi ye-laser le ngxenye izoba phezulu noma iphansi.

Umbala wogongolo lwe-laser unqunywa umkhanyo wesibani esikhishwe yi-laser diode ye-laser pointer.

Iso lomuntu lizwela kakhulu kuma-wavelength athile kunamanye, yingakho i-laser eluhlaza ikhanya kakhulu. Esithombeni esilandelayo sibona ukuthi kuthinta kanjani:

-Wavelength Izinkomba ezivame kakhulu ze-laser laser:

·405nm: UViolet ubomvu eduze kokubonakala kancane esweni lomuntu.

·445nm: Oluhlaza okotshani, obonakala ikakhulukazi ebangeni eliseduze.

·532nm: Okuluhlaza, okugqamile kunakho konke, kubonakala kakhulu futhi kuyabonakala emehlweni

·650nm: Umbala obomvu, okunzima kakhulu ukuwubona kunabanye.

· 880nm: I-Colour Infrared (IR), ecishe ingabonakali ngeso lomuntu.


-Isihlungi se-IR

Izikhombi eziningi ze-laser shoddy eziluhlaza eziluhlaza zisebenzisa i-infrared diode beam ukwenza umbala we-laser futhi zingabi nesihlungi se-IR. Ngenxa yalokhu, okukhipha ukukhanya kwama-lasers kungahlanganiswa nokukhanya kwe-infrared.
Ukukhanya kwe-infrared akubonakali iso lomuntu ngoba i-wavelength yayo (808nm).

Izinkinga ukukhanya okukhanyayo kuxutshaniswe nemibala yangempela yile:

1. Amandla wamanga we-Lasers. Uma uthenga i-laser 200mW 532nm (eluhlaza okotshani) no-150mW kwalawo angama-200 ukukhanya okungamakhanda (808nm), khona-ke une-laser ekhanya impela nje njenge-50mW pure 532nm.

2. Ngoba i-IR ayibonakali, noma iyiphi i-revotado ray Ungalimaza amehlo akho ngoba awukwazi ukubona indlela yemigqa yokukhanya, okubangela ingozi enkulu yalolu hlobo lwe-laser. Ngaphezu kwalokho yize kusetshenziswa imithambo yamehlo, ama-goggle avikela kuphela ukukhanya kwe-laser ebonakalayo, kungaba yi-532nm uma iluhlaza, noma i-650nm ebomvu ngokwesibonelo, ukuze ukukhanya okungabonakali kwe-infrared kwenzeke ngaphandle kwenkinga ngokusebenzisa izibuko kungakulimaza umbono .

Ikhwalithi ye-laser enenhlanhla njengayo yonke i-TorLaser eluhlaza inesakhi sangaphakathi esibizwa ngokuthi i-IR lemifanekiso, elibhekele ukuhlunga ukukhanya kokukhanyayo isuse noma iyiphi ingxenye esele yesibani se-infrared futhi iqinisekise ukuthi amandla akhiphayo ayi-100% akhishwe ku-wave waveth ebonakalayo.
Lokhu ngomunye umehluko omkhulu owenza isikhombisi seTorLaser silingane noma amandla amancane aphansi, akhanyayo futhi anamandla kunabanye bekhwalithi engathandekiyo.

Njengoba uzobona akuwona umehluko wemiphumela kuphela, kodwa nokuphepha.

Qaphela: Amandla we-laser wamamitha uyakwazi ukukala amandla kokukhishwa kwe-mW kuphela ukuthi i-laser ayikwazi ukukhombisa ukuthi ingakanani amandla akhiqizwayo kuma-wavelength ahlukene, ngakho-ke ngeke kube isivivinyo esithembekile sokubonisa ukuthi ngempela amandla e-laser ngokusho emaphethelweni ayo. Kule datha izodinga ukukhanya kokukhanya, ukukhanya nobubanzi.

-Kaleidoscope

I-kaleidoscope yishubhu equkethe izibuko ezintathu ezakha uhlangothi olungunxantathu ohlangothini lwalo olubonisayo lubheke ngaphakathi, ekugcineni okuyizinto ezimbili zamashidi phakathi kwazo kukhona izinto ezimbalwa zemibala ehlukene nobukhulu, obukhulu izithombe zabo zilingana lapho uvula ithubhu ngenkathi ubheka ekugcineni okuphambene. Lezi zibuko zingahlelwa ngezindawo ezihlukile. Kukhiqizwa izithombe ezingama-45 kwezingu-XNUMX. Abangu-60 babone izimpinda eziyisithupha nezingama-90 ezine.

Ezikhombeni ze-laser zifakwe kumakhanda amancane aguqukayo avumela imiphumela emikhulu yokukhanya, enwebeka kakhulu amathuba okusebenzisa i-pointer, okwenza ikulungele ukudala ezibukwayo.